Bladder Cancer Resources

Diagnosis/Treatment Options

BC Cancer Agency
BCCA Staging/Grading Information

Canadian Cancer Society

American Urological Association

Merck Manual
Merck Manual Home Version
Merck:  Staging chart (.pdf)

US National Cancer Institute
US NCI:  What to ask specialists before treatment

Cancer Research UK

Mayo Clinic

American Cancer Society Detailed Guide

MedLine Plus

Cancer Care Ontario:  1964-2002 Stats

Alberta Cancer Board Clinical Guidelines (VERY technical treatment information)


Exposure/Risk Factors

Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer (2003)  "A group of chemicals called arylamines are known to cause bladder cancer.  These chemicals have been banned in the UK for about 20 years.  But it can take up to 25 years for a bladder cancer to develop.  You may have been exposed to them a long time ago if you work in industries such as rubber or plastics manufacture.  Arylamines that increase risk of bladder cancer include:

  • Aniline dyes      

  • 2-Naphthylamine      

  • 4-Aminobiphenyl      

  • Xenylamine      

  • Benzidine

Another group of chemicals called polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer."

North American study, 1989:  "We examined the relationship between occupation and bladder cancer risk using data obtained from interviews conducted with 2,100 white males with bladder cancer and 3,874 population controls during the National Bladder Cancer Study, a population-based, case-control study conducted in 10 areas of the United States. The strongest evidence of increased risk among white men was observed for painters, truck drivers, and drill press operatives"

Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer, 1989:  "There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of occupational exposure as a painter.  There is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of occupational exposure in paint manufacture ...  Occupational exposure as a painter is carcinogenic (Group 1).  Occupational exposure in paint manufacture is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity (Group 3)."

Italian study, 2005: "...recent epidemiological evidence indicates a moderate excess risk for bladder cancer in painters. Some studies, however, suggested that any such risk would have been greater for exposures in the distant past. Open issues for interpretation include residual confounding by social class and tobacco smoking, and understanding the time-risk relation. In particular, the potential residual risk related to exposure over the last two to three decades remains to be defined." (Includes e-mail addresses to Milan institute that conducted the study.)

Dutch study, 2001: "This study provided only marginal evidence for an association between occupational exposure to paint components, PAHs, aromatic amines, and bladder cancer. Despite the small proportion of exposed subjects, an interaction with cigarette smoking was found, specifically for paint components, suggesting that the carcinogenic effect on the bladder might decrease after stopping smoking."